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شاخه (Phylum) : گیاهان گلدارکلاس (Class) : تک لپه ای هارديف (Order) : مارچوبه سانانخانواده (Family) : ثعلبیاننژاد (Genus) : ثعلب (ارکیده)طول عمر (Longevity) : چند سالهاندازه رشد (Height) : -----محدوده زمانی (Temporal Range) : اواخر کرتاسه تا کنونرستنگاه (Habitat) : در اکثر نقاط دنيا يافت مي شود بجز مناطق قطبی. اقیانوسیه => 50 تا 70 گونه آمریکای شمالی => 20 تا 26 گونه مناطق گرمسیری آمریکا => 212 تا 250 گونه مناطق گرمسیری آسیا => 260 تا 300 گونه مناطق گرمسیری آفریقا => 230 تا 270 گونه اروپا و آسیای میانه => 40 تا 60 گونهثعلبیان (Orchidaceae) تیرهای بزرگ و جهانی از مارچوبهسانان از گیاهان گلدار تکلپهای است. ثعلبیان گاه تیره ارکیده که در یونانی کهن orchis، به معنای بیضه، به خاطر شکل ریشهٔ گیاه نامیده میشود. نامهای دیگر آن در فارسی تیره ثعلب، تیره صعلب، حضیالثعلب (بیضه روباه)، ثعلبی، شاطریون، و سعلب است. به نظر میرسد ثعلبیان دومین تیره بزرگ گیاهان گلدار باشد (فقط گلستارهای بزرگتر است)، که تنها بین ۲۱٬۹۵۰ و ۲۶٬۰۴۹ گونه ثبت شده دارد. تعداد گونههای زیررده ارکیده دو برابر تعداد گونههای پرندگان و چهار برابر تعداد گونههای پستانداران است. که حول و حوش 6 تا 11% تمام گیاهان دانهدار را شامل میشود. ثعلبیان با حدود ۸۵۰ سرده و ۱۷۰۰۰ گونه که بزرگترین تیره گیاهان گلدار بهشمار میآید و شامل گونههای چندساله زمینی و رورست یا بالارونده است، دارای غدههای گوشتی یا پایه با گلهای نامنظم و ساختار خاص و دانههای ریز هستند.پروش گل ارکیده :بعضی از گونههای ارکیده مقاوم و مناسب برای داخل خانه و آپارتمان میباشند. اما بطور کلی اُرکیده هائی که دارای برگهای کاملا سبز هستند کمتر در برابر شرایط نامساعد حساسیت نشان میدهند.برای پرورش ارکیده باید نکات زیر توجه نمود :گیاه را در اسفندماه به گلدانی حاوی مخلوطی از خاک برگ، پیت و خاک معمولی منتقل نموده در ابتدا به میزان کم آب بدهند. در همان حال به دفعات زیاد با آب فاقد مواد قلیایی بر روی برگها بپاشند و یا گلدان را در محل مرطوبی برابر نور و بدور از تابش مستقیم آفتاب قرار دهند. در نیمه دوم فروردین ماه هنگامیکه ریشهها به اندازه کافی رشد کردند، آب فراوان به آن داده شود. دراین هنگام چنانچه بخواهند بر روی گیاه آب بپاشند بایستی دقت نمایند تا فقط برگها خیس شوند. حرارت مناسب برای اُرکیده ۱۵ درجه سانتیگراد است. زمستانها گلدان را در مکان سردی تحت ۸ درجه سانتیگراد حرارت قرار داده و از میزان آب بکاهند. تکثیر اُرکیده به روش تقسیم در بهار امکانپذیر است.کاربرد :از ثعلب در تولید بستنی سنتی ایرانی استفاده میشود. همچنین با آرد ثعلب در ترکیه نوشابه ثعلب درست میشود. گونههایی از ثعلب کاربرد دارویی داشتند که امروزه سعی میکنند مواد دیگری را جایگزین آن کنند. غدههای ریشه آن را جمعآوری کرده و خشک میکردند و بعد از آن لعاب ثعلب درست میکردند. این لعاب (موسیلاژ) هیدرولیز شده و به مانوز و گلوکوز تبدیل میشود و دارای 30% نشاسته، آلبومین و قند است. در گذشته در پزشکی سنتی از لعاب رقیق ثعلب برای ناراحتیهای روده، معده و تقویت قدرت جنسی استفاده میکردند ولی امروزه مواد دیگری را جایگزین ثعلب نموده اند. به دلیل جمعآوری بیش از اندازه، این گیاه در معرض خطر نابودی قرار گرفته است.
Phylum : AngiospermsClass : MonocotsOrder : AsparagalesFamily : OrchidaceaeGenus : OrchisTemporal range : Late Cretaceous – RecentOrchidaceae is a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants with blooms that are often colourful and often fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants, with between 21,950 and 26,049 currently accepted species, found in 880 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species).The family also includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus), and many commonly cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.Etymology :The type genus (i.e. the genus after which the family is named) is Orchis. The genus name comes from the Ancient Greek (órkhis), literally meaning "testicle", because of the shape of the twin tubers in some species of Orchis. The term "orchid" was introduced in 1845 by John Lindley in School Botany, as a shortened form of Orchidaceae. Description :Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident apomorphies. Among these are: bilateral symmetry (zygomorphism), many resupinate flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal (labellum), fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds.Stem and roots :All orchids are perennial herbs, lack any permanent woody structure, and can grow according to two patterns:Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla.Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front (the newest growth) and a back (the oldest growth). The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing, to be then replaced. Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support. The growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called 'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching. Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil.Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers. The root caps of terrestrials are smooth and white.Some sympodial terrestrials, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops.In warm and humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs.Epiphytic orchids have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis, called velamen, has the function to absorb humidity. It is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, called tilosomes.The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support. Nutrients mainly come from animal droppings and other organic detritus on their supporting surfaces.The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods.The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, and can have different shapes, often conical or oblong. Its size is very variable; in some small species of Bulbophyllum, it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world, Grammatophyllum speciosum (giant orchid), it can reach three meters. Some Dendrobium species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length; some other orchids have hidden or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves.With ageing, the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At this stage it is often called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold nutrition for the plant, but then a pseudobulb usually takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which eventually dies off, too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five years. Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are also said to have growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant.Leaves :Like most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have a reticulate venation. Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size. Their characteristics are often diagnostic. They are normally alternate on the stem, often plicate, and have no stipules. Orchid leaves often have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous.The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminae are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade species, on the other hand, have long, thin leaves.The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves, shed them annually and develop new leaves together with new pseudobulbs, as in Catasetum.The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental. The leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or lithophyte, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background. The cordate leaves of Psychopsiella limminghei are light brownish-green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower pigments. The attractive mottle of the leaves of lady's slippers from tropical and subtropical Asia (Paphiopedilum), is caused by uneven distribution of chlorophyll. Also, Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green. The jewel orchid (Ludisia discolor) is grown more for its colorful leaves than its white flowers.Some orchids, as Dendrophylax lindenii (ghost orchid), Aphyllorchis and Taeniophyllum depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophic species.Orchids of the genus Corallorhiza (coralroot orchids) lack leaves altogether and instead wrap their roots around the roots of mature trees and use specialized fungi to harvest sugars. Evolution :A study in the scientific journal Nature has hypothesized that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected. An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found trapped in Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago. The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings. This find is the first evidence of fossilised orchids to date. The extinct orchid M. caribea has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae).This indicates orchids may have arisen 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. In other words, they may have coexisted with dinosaurs. It also shows insects were active pollinators of orchids then. According to Chase et al. (2001), the overall biogeography and phylogenetic patterns of Orchidaceae show they are even older and may go back roughly 100 million years. Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family. This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family. Since this genus occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70 million years).Distribution :Orchidaceae are cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat apart from glaciers. The world's richest diversity of orchid genera and species is found in the tropics, but they are also found above the Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia, and two species of Nematoceras on Macquarie Island at 54° south.The following list gives a rough overview of their distribution :Oceania: 50 to 70 generaNorth America: 20 to 26 generatropical America: 212 to 250 generatropical Asia: 260 to 300 generatropical Africa: 230 to 270 generaEurope and temperate Asia: 40 to 60 generaEcology :A majority of orchids are perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics. Species such as Angraecum sororium are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky soil. Other orchids (including the majority of temperate Orchidaceae) are terrestrial and can be found in habitat areas such as grasslands or forest.Some orchids, such as Neottia and Corallorhiza, lack chlorophyll, so are unable to photosynthesize. Instead, these species obtain energy and nutrients by parasitising soil fungi through the formation of orchid mycorrhizas. The fungi involved include those that form ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites such as Armillaria, and saprotrophs. These orchids are known as myco-heterotrophs, but were formerly (incorrectly) described as saprophytes as it was believed they gained their nutrition by breaking down organic matter. While only a few species are achlorophyllous holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination and seedling growth, and even photosynthetic adult plants may continue to obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.Uses :A flower of a Blc. Paradise Jewel 'Flame' hybrid orchid plant. Blooms of the Cattleya alliance are often used in ladies' corsages.The scent of orchids is frequently analysed by perfumers (using headspace technology and gas-liquid chromatography) to identify potential fragrance chemicals.The other important use of orchids is their cultivation for the enjoyment of the flowers. Most cultivated orchids are tropical or subtropical, but quite a few which grow in colder climates can be found on the market. Temperate species available at nurseries include Ophrys apifera (bee orchid), Gymnadenia conopsea (fragrant orchid), Anacamptis pyramidalis (pyramidal orchid) and Dactylorhiza fuchsii (common spotted orchid).Orchids of all types have also often been sought by collectors of both species and hybrids. As such, many hundreds of societies and clubs worldwide have been established. These can be small, local clubs such as the Sutherland Shire Orchid Society, or larger, national organisations such as the American Orchid Society. Both serve to encourage cultivation and collection of orchids, but some go further by concentrating on conservation or research.The term "botanical orchid" loosely denotes those small-flowered, tropical orchids belonging to several genera (not necessarily related to each other) that do not fit into the "florist" orchid category. A few of these genera contain enormous numbers of species. Some, such as Pleurothallis and Bulbophyllum, contain approximately 1700 and 2000 species, respectively, and are often extremely vegetatively diverse. The primary use of the term is among orchid hobbyists wishing to describe unusual species they grow, though it is also used to distinguish naturally occurring orchid species from horticulturally created hybrids. Use as foodThe dried seed pods of one orchid genus, Vanilla (especially Vanilla planifolia), are commercially important as flavoring in baking, for perfume manufacture and aromatherapy.The underground tubers of terrestrial orchids [mainly Orchis mascula (early purple orchid)] are ground to a powder and used for cooking, such as in the hot beverage salep or in the Turkish frozen treat dondurma. The name salep has been claimed to come from the Arabic expression ḥasyu al-tha`lab, "fox testicles", but it appears more likely the name comes directly from the Arabic name saḥlab. The similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being considered an aphrodisiac.The dried leaves of Jumellea fragrans are used to flavor rum on Reunion Island.Some saprophytic orchid species of the group Gastrodia produce potato-like tubers and were consumed as food by native peoples in Australia and can be successfully cultivated, notably Gastrodia sesamoides. Wild stands of these plants can still be found in the same areas as early aboriginal settlements, such as Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park in Australia. Aboriginal peoples located the plants in habitat by observing where bandicoots had scratched in search of the tubers after detecting the plants underground by scent. Traditional medicinal usesOrchids have been used in traditional medicine in an effort to treat many diseases and ailments. They have been used as a source of herbal remedies in China since 2800 BC. Gastrodia elata is one of the three orchids listed in the earliest known Chinese Materia Medica (Shennon bencaojing) (c. 100 AD). Theophrastus mentions orchids in his Enquiry into Plants (372–286 BC). Cultural symbolismOrchids have many associations with symbolic values. For example, the orchid is the City Flower of Shaoxing, China. Cattleya mossiae is the national Venezuelan flower, while Cattleya trianae is the national flower of Colombia. Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' is the national flower of Singapore. Guarianthe skinneri is the national flower of Costa Rica. Orchids native to the Mediterranean are depicted on the Ara Pacis in Rome, until now the only known instance of orchids in ancient art, and the earliest in European art.