آلبوم چالز ديکنز (نويسنده)

Charles Dickens

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زندگینامه چالز ديکنز

Charles_Dickens چارلز جان هـوفام ديکنـز


نام اصلي:              چارلز جان هــوفام ديکنــز

تاريخ تولد:              7 فوريه 1812 - 17 بهمن 1190 شمسي
تاريخ درگذشت:      9 ژوئن 1870 - 19 خرداد 1249 ش (58 ساله)
محل تولد:               پورتسموت، انگلستان
محل درگذشت:      هيگام، انگلستان
محل خاکسپاري:   قطعه شعراي وست مينستر ابي، انگلستان
مليت:                      انگليسي
زمينه فعاليت:         نويسنده و روزنامه‌نگار
آثار شاخص:            ديويد کاپرفيلد، آرزوهاي بزرگ، اليور تويست، داستان دو شهر و...
جنبش:                    -----
همسر:                   کاترين هوگارت

استاد(ان):              -----
شاگرد(ان):             -----

زندگينامه:

چارلز جان هوفام ديکنز، برجسته‌ترين رمان‌نويس انگليسي عصر ويکتوريا و يک فعال اجتماعي توانمند بود. به عقيده جيمز جويس، نويسنده بزرگ معاصر، از شکسپير به اين سو، ديکنز تأثيرگذارترين نويسنده در زبان انگليسي بوده ‌است. از او براي داستان‌سرايي و نثر توانمندش و خلق شخصيت‌هاي به يادماندني، بسيار تحسين به عمل آمده ‌است. ديکنز در طول زندگي خويش، محبوبيت جهاني بسياري کسب کرده ‌است. از آثارش مي‌توان ديويد کاپرفيلد، آرزوهاي بزرگ، اليور تويست و داستان دو شهر را نام برد.

ديکنز در 7 فوريه 1812 در لندپورت پورتسي متولد شد. او دومين پسر جان ديکنز، کارمند اداره کارپردازي بحريه بود. پدرش اهل لاابالي‌گري و وامداري بود و کار را به جايي رساند که او را به زندان مارشالسي انداختند. به همين دليل ديکنز 12 ساله را براي تأمين معاش خانه به کارخانه واکس سازي وارن فرستادند. او تا آزادي پدرش از زندان هم‌چنان مجبور به کار بود تا بالاخره بعد از مراجعت پدر توانست به مدرسه بازگردد.

ديکنز بعد از پايان دوره مدرسه، در یک دفتر وکالت مشغول به کار شد و پس از بررسي زندگي شلوغ و متنوع لندن، بر آن شد تا روزنامه‌نگار شود. در اين دوره، در شيوه‌اي سخت از خلاصه‌نويسي، توانايي خود را نشان داد و در مارس 1832 در حاليکه جواني حدوداً 20 ساله بود، خبرنگار امور عمومي و پارلماني شد.

ديکنز در سال 1829 دلداده دختري به نام "ماريا بيدنل" شد، اما والدين ماريا او را از لحاظ اجتماعي در سطحي نازل‌تر از خود يافتند. اين دل باختگي و برخوردي ديگر با او در ميان سالي ديکنز، بعدها در عشق شخصيت معروف رمانش ديويد کاپرفيلد به دختري به نام دورا بازتاب يافت.

نخستين طرح‌واره ديکنز به سال 1833 با پيوستن به مورنينگ کرونيکل به عنوان "ناهار در پوپلار" منتشر شد و در پي آن، طرح‌واره‌هاي ديگر انتشار يافت. او در اين سال‌ها با پرسه در نواحي خارج از لندن و حضور در گردهمايي‌هاي انتخابات مقدماتي مجلس و تهيه گزارش از آن، وارد زندگي اجتماعي‌اي شد که گسترش آن، سريع و لحظه به لحظه بود. او در اوايل سال 1836، دو ماه پس از انتشار طرح‌واره‌هايي از بوز، با "کاترين هوگارت" ازدواج کرد و پس از آن براي نوشتن داستان زنجيره‌ايي که بعدها نامه‌هاي پيکويک نام گرفت، قرارداد بست. او پيش از آن سردبيري بنتليز مسيلاني را پذيرفته بود که در آن، از سال 1837 تا 1839 اليور تويست منتشر شد.

ديکنز در اوايل 1837، صاحب اولين فرزند خود از ده فرزندش شد و در ماه مه، شاهد مرگ خواهر همسرش بود که از اوايل زندگي مشترک آن دو، با آن‌ها زيسته بود. ياد فقدان شديد او براي ديکنز بعدها در بيماري سخت رز ميلي در اليور تويست بزرگ داشته شد.

در سال 1838 از مدارس ارزان يورکشاير ديدن کرد و در نيکلاس نيکلبي، درباره اين اماکن نوشت. در همين روزها با زني به نام آنجلا بروت کوتس آشنا شد و به دفاع از افکار بشر دوستانه اين زن پرداخت و کوشش اجتماعي خود را در خدمت اهداف او به کار بست. از جمله اين فعاليت‌ها تأسيس خانه‌اي براي زنان ساقط شده به سال 1847 بود. هر چند ديکنز در سال 1830 از بزرگان ادب آن روزگار محسوب مي‌شد، اما او پس از آن نيز، از تلاش خود براي تاختن به بيداد و ستمگري و فخر فروشي، دست نکشيد. ديکنز با بسط طرح اوليه "ساعت آقاي همفري"، داستاني بلندي با عنوان "دکان عتيقه چي" نوشت و هم‌چون گذشته، فرياد اعتراض خود را از به کارگيري کودکان در معادن، به گوش جامعه‌اش رساند و هم‌چنين طنز "تمسخر عليه توري‌ها" را در نوشته‌هاي خود جاي داد، کساني‌که مخالف تصويب قوانين انساني بودند.

دوران ميانسالي:

در سال 1851 به "تاويستوک هاوس" نقل مکان کرد که براي اسکان خانواده‌اش و خانواده همسرش که در ايام عدم حضور ديکنز در وطن با خانواده او زندگي مي‌کردند، به حد لازم، بزرگ بود و پس از اين جابجايي نگارش "خانه قانون‌زده" را آغاز کرد. ديکنز در سال 1853 "سرود کريسمس" را که ده سال پيش از آن نگاشته بود، براي جماعتي 2000 نفري خواند و در سال بعد توانست با انتشار "دوران سختي" در فروش مجله‌اش «هاوسهولد وردز» که اين روزها افت کرده بود، هيجاني به وجود آورد و با شيوع وبا در سال 1854، در همين مجله مصراً خواستار بهبود وضع بهداشت جامعه شد. وي پالمرستن و دولتش را به خاطر سوء اداره وحشتناک جنگ کريمه مورد انتفاد قرار داد و اين انتقادها در بي‌کفايتي موصوف در "داريت کوچک" پي گرفته شد. او سرانجام موفق به خريد خانه‌اي شد که از کودکي در رؤياهاي خود مي‌پروراند، خانه‌اي نزديک راچستر - گذر هيل پليس. اما در سال 1857 براي او واضح و عيان بود که ازدواج و زندگي مشترک او و همسرش به پايان خود نزديک مي‌شود. او که با شور و شوق بسيار، خواستار خوانش قطعاتي از کتاب‌هايش براي علاقه‌مندان بود، در بحران جدايي از کاترين قرار گرفت.

چارلز که دوران ميانسالي را پشت سر مي گذاشت و به اوج شهرت و محبوبيت هم رسيده بود، تحمل زندگي در کنار کاترين خانه دار و البته بي علاقه به ادبيات را از دست داد. کاترين که هشت فرزند (دو دختر و شش پسر) براي همسرش به دنيا آورده بود، هيچ استعداد و علاقه اي به شنيدن و نظردادن در مورد کارهاي همسرش نداشت و در همين زمان بود که شايعه وجود رابطه نه چندان خوشايند بين ديکنز و "الن ترنان" هنرپيشه هفده ساله بر سر زبان‌ها افتاد. اين شايعات و حرافي‌ها، ديکنز را براي دفاع از بي‌گناهي خود و ترنان، وارد عملي پر هياهو و به دور از احتياط کرد. مقاله اي که ديکنز در روزنامه تايم منتشر کرد و در آن به دفاع از بي گناهي الن پرداخت، بيشتر باعث رسوايي خودش و نشانه صحت شايعات بود. گفته مي شود الن يک مشاور خوب براي ديکنز بوده و ديکنز در مورد تمام نوشته هايش با وي مشورت مي کرده است. بيوگرافي‌نويس کلر تومالين در کتاب زن نامرئي استدلال ميکنذ که الن ترنان 13 سال پاياني عمر ديکنز را با وي به صورت مخفيانه زندگي کرده ‌است. بعداً از روي کتاب زن محرمانه يک نمايشنامه تحت عنوان "نلي کوچک" توسط سيمون گري نوشته شده است و همچنين فيلمي در سال 2013.

در اوايل 1859 مجله‌اي تازه با عنوان "سرتاسر سال" که با "داستان دو شهر" آغاز مي‌شد، منتشر کرد؛ اما فروش آن دچار افت شد و براي بازگشت به وضع قبلي، انتشار "آرزوهاي بزرگ" به او کمک کرد.

مرگ:

بي‌قراري ديکنز براي خلق اثر هم‌چنان باقي بود، اما سلامت او با خواندن‌هاي پر از شيفتگي‌اش، روز به روز تحليل مي‌رفت. پس از سال 1860 (روزهايي که آرزوهاي بزرگ قلم مي‌خورد)، الن ترنان، گاه گاه در نزدش مي‌ماند. در 9 ژوئن 1865، ديکنز با سانحه قطار مواجه شد که در مؤخره "دوست مشترک ما" به آن اشاره مي‌کند، اما با اين همه، کتاب‌خواني‌هاي او و سفرهايي که با اين هدف داشت، ادامه يافت، چنان‌که حدود 1867-1868 ديگر بار به امريکا رفت. او از لحاظ مالي هيچ کم نداشت، اما از نظر جسماني شکسته به نظر مي‌رسيد.

بي‌اعتنايي او به هشدارها (فلج جزئي - ناتواني در خواندن حروف سمت چپ و لنگش روز افزون پاي چپ) تا بدان‌جا پيش رفت که در سال 1870 اقدام به يک رشته کتاب‌خواني جديد نمود. ديکنز در 15 مارس براي آخرين بار "سرود کريسمس" را خواند و سرانجام در 9 ژوئن 1870، در حالي‌که "ادوين درود" به پايان نرسيده بود، به طور ناگهاني از جهان رفت.

فهرست آثار:

ديکنز آثار بسياري به صورت رمان و داستان‌هاي کوتاه دارد. او بيشتر داستان‌هاي معروفش مانند اليور تويست را به صورت داستان‌هاي سريالي در روزنامه‌ها و هفته‌نامه‌ها منتشر مي‌کرد که بعدها به صورت کتاب جمع‌آوري شدند.

رمان‌هاي برجسته ديکنز:

    1837    آقاي پيکويک
    1838    اليور تويست
    1839    ماجراهاي نيکلاس نيکلبي
    1840    مغازه عتيقه‌فروشي
    1841    بارنابي روج
    1843    سرود کريسمس
    1844    زندگي و ماجراجويي‌هاي مارتين چوزلويت
    1848    دامبي و پسر
    1853    ديويد کاپرفيلد
    1853    خانه غمزده
    1854    دوران مشقت
    1857    دوريت کوچک
    1859    داستان دو شهر
    1861    آرزوهاي بزرگ
    1865    دوست مشترکمان
    1867    عبور ممنوع
    1870    اسرار ادوين درود


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Name:                        Charles John Huffam Dickens
Born:                          February 7, 1812
Died:                          June 9, 1870 (aged 58)
Born in:                      Landport, England
Died in:                      Higham, England
Nationality:               English
Field(s) of activity: Writer
Notable work(s):     The Pickwick Papers, Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol, David Copperfield, Bleak House,...
Movement:              -----
Husband of:              Catherine Thomson Hogarth.
Student of:               -----
Teacher of:               -----

Biography:

Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era. His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity.

Born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison. Despite his lack of formal education, he edited a weekly journal for 20 years, wrote 15 novels, five novellas, hundreds of short stories and non-fiction articles, lectured and performed extensively, was an indefatigable letter writer, and campaigned vigorously for children's rights, education, and other social reforms.

Dickens's literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers. Within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour, satire, and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the serial publication of narrative fiction, which became the dominant Victorian mode for novel publication. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audience's reaction, and he often modified his plot and character development based on such feedback. For example, when his wife's chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities, Dickens improved the character with positive features. His plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the illiterate poor chipped in ha'pennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up and inspiring a new class of readers.

Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age. His 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are also frequently adapted, and, like many of his novels, evoke images of early Victorian London. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London and Paris, is his best-known work of historical fiction. Dickens's creative genius has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell and G. K. Chesterton—for its realism, comedy, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth, loose writing, and a vein of saccharine sentimentalism. The term Dickensian is used to describe something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings, such as poor social conditions or comically repulsive characters.

Early years:

Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace (now 393 Commercial Road), Landport in Portsea Island (Portsmouth), the second of eight children of John Dickens (1785–1851) and Elizabeth Dickens . His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majesty's Navy, gentleman, and head of an established firm, to act as godfather to Charles. Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickens's eponymous Dombey and Son (1848).

In January 1815 John Dickens was called back to London, and the family moved to Norfolk Street, Fitzrovia.[13] When Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, and thence to Chatham, Kent, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he thought himself a "very small and not-over-particularly-taken-care-of boy".

Charles spent time outdoors but also read voraciously, including the picaresque novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe and Gil Blas. He read and reread The Arabian Nights and the Collected Farces of Elizabeth Inchbald. He retained poignant memories of childhood, helped by an excellent memory of people and events, which he used in his writing. His father's brief work as a clerk in the Navy Pay Office afforded him a few years of private education, first at a dame school, and then at a school run by William Giles, a dissenter, in Chatham.

This period came to an end in June 1822, when John Dickens was recalled to Navy Pay Office headquarters at Somerset House, and the family—minus Charles, who stayed behind to finish his final term of work—moved to Camden Town in London. The family had left Kent amidst rapidly mounting debts, and, living beyond his means, John Dickens was forced by his creditors into the Marshalsea debtors' prison in Southwark, London in 1824. His wife and youngest children joined him there, as was the practice at the time. Charles, then 12 years old, boarded with Elizabeth Roylance, a family friend, at 112 College Place, Camden Town. Roylance was "a reduced [impoverished] old lady, long known to our family", whom Dickens later immortalised, "with a few alterations and embellishments", as "Mrs. Pipchin" in Dombey and Son. Later, he lived in a back-attic in the house of an agent for the Insolvent Court, Archibald Russell, "a fat, good-natured, kind old gentleman... with a quiet old wife" and lame son, in Lant Street in Southwark. They provided the inspiration for the Garlands in The Old Curiosity Shop.

On Sundays—with his sister Frances, free from her studies at the Royal Academy of Music—he spent the day at the Marshalsea. Dickens later used the prison as a setting in Little Dorrit. To pay for his board and to help his family, Dickens was forced to leave school and work ten-hour days at Warren's Blacking Warehouse, on Hungerford Stairs, near the present Charing Cross railway station, where he earned six shillings a week pasting labels on pots of boot blacking. The strenuous and often harsh working conditions made a lasting impression on Dickens and later influenced his fiction and essays, becoming the foundation of his interest in the reform of socio-economic and labour conditions, the rigours of which he believed were unfairly borne by the poor. He later wrote that he wondered "how I could have been so easily cast away at such an age". As he recalled to John Forster (from The Life of Charles Dickens):

    The blacking-warehouse was the last house on the left-hand side of the way, at old Hungerford Stairs. It was a crazy, tumble-down old house, abutting of course on the river, and literally overrun with rats. Its wainscoted rooms, and its rotten floors and staircase, and the old grey rats swarming down in the cellars, and the sound of their squeaking and scuffling coming up the stairs at all times, and the dirt and decay of the place, rise up visibly before me, as if I were there again. The counting-house was on the first floor, looking over the coal-barges and the river. There was a recess in it, in which I was to sit and work. My work was to cover the pots of paste-blacking; first with a piece of oil-paper, and then with a piece of blue paper; to tie them round with a string; and then to clip the paper close and neat, all round, until it looked as smart as a pot of ointment from an apothecary's shop. When a certain number of grosses of pots had attained this pitch of perfection, I was to paste on each a printed label, and then go on again with more pots. Two or three other boys were kept at similar duty down-stairs on similar wages. One of them came up, in a ragged apron and a paper cap, on the first Monday morning, to show me the trick of using the string and tying the knot. His name was Bob Fagin; and I took the liberty of using his name, long afterwards, in Oliver Twist.

When the warehouse was moved to Chandos Street in the smart, busy district of Covent Garden the boys worked in a room in which the window gave onto the street and little audiences gathered and watched them at work—in Dickens biographer Simon Callow's estimation, the public display was "a new refinement added to his misery".

A few months after his imprisonment, John Dickens' paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Dickens, died and bequeathed him £450. On the expectation of this legacy, Dickens was released from prison. Under the Insolvent Debtors Act, Dickens arranged for payment of his creditors, and he and his family left Marshalsea, for the home of Mrs Roylance.

Charles's mother, Elizabeth Dickens, did not immediately support his removal from the boot-blacking warehouse. This influenced Dickens' view that a father should rule the family, and a mother find her proper sphere inside the home: "I never afterwards forgot, I never shall forget, I never can forget, that my mother was warm for my being sent back". His mother's failure to request his return was a factor in his dissatisfied attitude towards women.

Righteous indignation stemming from his own situation and the conditions under which working-class people lived became major themes of his works, and it was this unhappy period in his youth to which he alluded in his favourite, and most autobiographical, novel, David Copperfield: "I had no advice, no counsel, no encouragement, no consolation, no assistance, no support, of any kind, from anyone, that I can call to mind, as I hope to go to heaven!"

Dickens was eventually sent to the Wellington House Academy in Camden Town, where he remained until March 1827, having spent about two years there. He did not consider it to be a good school: "Much of the haphazard, desultory teaching, poor discipline punctuated by the headmaster's sadistic brutality, the seedy ushers and general run-down atmosphere, are embodied in Mr. Creakle's Establishment in David Copperfield."

Dickens worked at the law office of Ellis and Blackmore, attorneys, of Holborn Court, Gray's Inn, as a junior clerk from May 1827 to November 1828. He was a gifted mimic and impersonated those around him: clients, lawyers, and clerks. He went to theatres obsessively—he claimed that for at least three years he went to the theatre every single day. His favourite actor was Charles Mathews, and Dickens learnt his monopolylogues, (farces in which Mathews played every character), by heart. Then, having learned Gurney's system of shorthand in his spare time, he left to become a freelance reporter. A distant relative, Thomas Charlton, was a freelance reporter at Doctors' Commons, and Dickens was able to share his box there to report the legal proceedings for nearly four years. This education was to inform works such as Nicholas Nickleby, Dombey and Son, and especially Bleak House—whose vivid portrayal of the machinations and bureaucracy of the legal system did much to enlighten the general public and served as a vehicle for dissemination of Dickens's own views regarding, particularly, the heavy burden on the poor who were forced by circumstances to "go to law".

In 1830, Dickens met his first love, Maria Beadnell, thought to have been the model for the character Dora in David Copperfield. Maria's parents disapproved of the courtship and ended the relationship by sending her to school in Paris.

Death:

On 8 June 1870, Dickens suffered another stroke at his home after a full day's work on Edwin Drood. He never regained consciousness, and the next day, five years to the day after the Staplehurst rail crash, he died at Gad's Hill Place. Contrary to his wish to be buried at Rochester Cathedral "in an inexpensive, unostentatious, and strictly private manner," he was laid to rest in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey. A printed epitaph circulated at the time of the funeral reads: "To the Memory of Charles Dickens (England's most popular author) who died at his residence, Higham, near Rochester, Kent, 9 June 1870, aged 58 years. He was a sympathiser with the poor, the suffering, and the oppressed; and by his death, one of England's greatest writers is lost to the world." His last words were: "On the ground", in response to his sister-in-law Georgina's request that he lie down.

On Sunday, 19 June 1870, five days after Dickens was buried in the Abbey, Dean Arthur Penrhyn Stanley delivered a memorial elegy, lauding "the genial and loving humorist whom we now mourn", for showing by his own example "that even in dealing with the darkest scenes and the most degraded characters, genius could still be clean, and mirth could be innocent." Pointing to the fresh flowers that adorned the novelist's grave, Stanley assured those present that "the spot would thenceforth be a sacred one with both the New World and the Old, as that of the representative of literature, not of this island only, but of all who speak our English tongue."

In his will, drafted more than a year before his death, Dickens left the care of his £80,000 estate to his longtime colleague John Forster and his "best and truest friend" Georgina Hogarth who, along with Dickens's two sons, also received a tax-free sum of £8,000 (about £800,000 in present terms). Although Dickens and his wife had been separated for several years at the time of his death, he provided her with an annual income of £600 and made her similar allowances in his will. He also bequeathed £19 19s to each servant in his employment at the time of his death.

Selected works:

    1837    The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club
    1839    The Adventures of Oliver Twist
    1839    The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
    1843    A Christmas Carol
    1848    Dombey and Son
    1850    David Copperfield
    1853    Bleak House
    1854    Hard Times: For These Times
    1857    Little Dorrit
    1859    A Tale of Two Cities
    1861    Great Expectations
    1865    Our Mutual Friend

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